Cold Weather Safety
Very cold temperatures, like very hot ones, can be hazardous to
your health. Proper dress and some sensible practices can prevent
a lot of the problems associated with cold weather. In addition
knowing the symptoms of danger and how to treat them can keep problems
that do occur from becoming disasters.
The most common hazard in the cold is frostbite. Your body doesn’t
get enough heat and the body tissues freeze. Body parts most often
affected by frostbite are the nose, ears, cheeks, fingers, and toes.
In very bad cases, frostbite can cause permanent tissue damage
and loss of movement in the affected body parts. In the worst cases,
you could become unconscious and stop breathing. You could even
die of heart failure.
The other cold hazard is hypothermia. That’s what it’s
called when you’re exposed to cold so long that your body
temperature gets dangerously low. Just like frostbite, the worst
case results are unconsciousness and death.
With both cold hazards, you’re more at risk if you’re
older, overweight, or have allergies or poor circulation. Other
factors that raise the risk are smoking, drinking, and taking medications
such as sedatives.
It is very important to know the symptoms of frostbite and hypothermia
so that you can do something before it is too late.
Frostbite can occur from being in a cold area or from touching
an object whose temperature is below freezing. In many cases, people
don’t have any idea that it’s happening. That’s
why you have to be familiar with the symptoms.
Frostbite victims usually start by feeling uncomfortably cold,
then numb. Sometimes they also get a tingling or aching feeling
or a brief pain. The recommended practice is whenever you feel numbness,
Hypothermia can also take you by surprise because you can get it
even when the temperature is above freezing. Windy conditions, physical
exhaustion, and wet clothing can all make you prone to hypothermia.
With hypothermia, you first feel cold, then pain in the extremities.
You’ll shiver, which is how the body tries to raise the temperature.
Other symptoms include numbness, stiffness (especially in the neck,
arms, and legs), poor coordination, drowsiness, slow or irregular
breathing and heart rate, slurred speech, cool skin, and puffiness
in the face.
As you can see, many of these symptoms are not unusual and could
mean different things. But if you’re exposed to very cold
conditions, take them seriously and take steps to relieve them.
PROTECTION AGAINST HAZARDS
The best way to deal with cold problems is to prevent them in the
first place. The most sensible approach is to limit exposure to
cold, especially if it’s windy or damp.
If you know you’re going to be in cold conditions, don’t
bathe, smoke, or drink, alcohol just before going out.
- Dress for conditions in layers of loose, dry clothes.
The most effective mix is cotton or wool underneath, with something
waterproof on top.
- Get dried or changed immediately if your clothes do get wet.
- Be sure to cover hands, feet, face, and head. A hat is
critical because you can lose up to 40 percent of your body heat
if your head isn’t covered.
- Keep moving when you’re in the cold.
- Take regular breaks in warm area. Go where it’s
warm any time you start to feel very cold or numb. Drink something
warm, as long as it doesn’t contain alcohol or caffeine.
As you know, prevention doesn’t always work. So it’s
important to know what to do if you or someone you’re with
shows symptoms of cold problems.
The first thing to do is to get where it’s warm. Get out
of any frozen, wet, or tight clothing and into warm clothes or blankets.
Drink something warm, decaffeinated, and non-alcoholic.
For hypothermia, call 9-1-1 for medical help and keep the person
covered with blankets or something similar. Don’t use hot
baths, electric blankets, or hot water bottles. Give artificial
respiration if necessary and try to keep the person awake and dry.
For frostbite, first be aware of the don’ts:
- Don’t rub the body part, or apply a heat lamp or hot water
- Don’t go near a hot stove.
- Don’t break any blisters.
- Don’t drink caffeine.
- Do warm the frozen body part quickly with sheets and blankets
or warm (not hot) water.
- Once the body part is warm, exercise it-with one exception:
Don’t walk on frostbitten feet.
It’s dangerous to underestimate the health hazards you’re
exposed to in the cold. But if you take some precautions before
you’re exposed and know what symptoms can spell trouble, you
substantially reduce your risk.
If in any doubt, Dial 9-1-1